Site Assessment and

FQA—Floristic Quality Assessment


Site Assessment


Site Assessment is a specialty of CRI. Dr. Gerould Wilhelm and his associates are expert at recognizing flora and fauna on any given site, evaluating the ecological and cultural significance, and advising landowners how to go forward with conservation and/or development projects.


This page from an assessment of the Bryant Property in Waukesha, Wisconsin is an example of this type of work:

FQA — Floristic Quality Assessment


Floristic Quality Assessment, a vegetation-based ecological assessment protocol, was introduced by Gerould Wilhelm in 1977 and applied in a pilot study that assessed the natural areas of Kane County, Illinois, which is available on this page.  It was applied for the 22-county Chicago region as a whole in 1979 by F. Swink and G. Wilhelm in their book, Plants of the Chicago Region, published by the Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois.  Wilhelm & Ladd expanded the explanation in 1988 in the Transactions of the 53rd North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference.  Since then, it has been applied fully to numerous others states and regions, which include 33 states and 2 provinces.


Some state programs are included in a treatment for Mid-Atlantic States and the Northeast Regional Floristic Quality Assessments. A number of these assessments are included on this web page. To access an FQA Universal Calculator, go to this website:

Downloadable from this page:


Ecological Checklist of the Missouri Flora for Floristic Quality Assessment by Douglass Ladd and Justin R. Thomas, 2015


• All Ohio FQAI, 2004


Adapting the Floristic Quality Assessment Index to Indicate Anthropogenic Disturbance in Central Pennsylvania Wetlands by Sarah J. Miller and Denice H. Wardrop, 2006


• Floristic Quality Assessment in the Chicago Region and Application Computer Programs by Gerould S. Wilhelm and Linda A. Masters, revised 1995


• Floristic Bioassessment Tools and Ecological Integrity Assessment Scorecards: Three Condition Assessments for Southern Rocky Mountain Wetlands by Joe Rocchio


• Floristic Quality Assessment for Washington Vegetation by F. Joseph Rocchio and Rex. C. Crawford, 2013


Floristic Quality Assessment for Vegetation In Illinois, A Method for Assessing Vegetation Integrity by John B. Taft, Gerould S. Wilhelm, Douglas M. Ladd, and Linda A. Masters


• An Evaluation of Indiana's Floristic Quality Assessment by Paul E. Rothrock and Michael A. Homoya, 2005


• Kane County Natural Area Survey by Gerould S. Wilhelm


• A Survey of Natural Area Sites in Cherokee County, Kansas by Hillary Loring, Kelly Kindscher, and Jennifer Delisle, 2005


• Lichens of the Chicago Region by Gerould Wilhelm and Laura Rericha, 2003


• Floristic Quality Assessment with Wetland Categories and Examples of Computer Applications for the State of Michigan, revised 2001


• Floristic Quality Assessment Index (FQAI) for Vascular Plants and Mosses for the State of Ohio

by Barbara K. Andreas, John J. Mack and James S. McCormac, 2004


• Use Cases for Openlands Universal FQA Calculator by Will Freyman


• Coefficients of Conservatism Values and the Floristic Quality Index for the Vascular Plants of

South Florida, 2009


• A Floristic Quality Index for West Virginia Wetland and Riparian Plant Communities by James S. Rentch and James T. Anderson, 2006


• Natural Area Assessment in the Chicago Region by Gerould Wilhelm and Douglas Ladd


• Development of a Floristic Quality Assessment Methodology for Wisconsin by Thomas W. Bernthal, 2003


Special Vegetation of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore by Gerould S. Wilhelm, 1990

States and
Provinces where
FQA has been applied:





















New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota




Rhode Island

South Dakota

South Florida




West Virginia


"Floristic Quality Assessment: a critique, a defense, and a primer"


An open access article about FQA published in 2019 by Illinois Natural History Survey research scientist Greg Spyreas:


Spyreas, G. 2019. Floristic Quality Assessment: a critique, a defense, and a primer. Ecosphere 10(8).